Energy Efficiency

Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009 Report

This annual report (2009) released by UNEP SEFI and New Energy Finance provides an overview of capital flows and an analysis of the trends in sustainable energy investment activity.  

Public Finance Mechanisms to Increase Investment in Energy Efficiency

Prepared by BASE, a UNEP Collaborating Centre, this report focuses specifically on energy efficiency measures. It includes financing instruments such as contingent grants, soft loans, incubator programs, mezzanine and equity funding and guarantee programmes. (2006)

Public Finance Mechanisms to Catalyse Sustainable Energy Sector Growth

This report examines public finance mechanisms being used around the world to help increase investment in sustainable energy and to catalyse market growth.  

Public Finance Mechanisms to Mobilise Investment in Climate Change Mitigation

This report provides an overview of the mechanisms being used today by the public sector to help scale up the climate mitigation markets, with a particular focus on the clean energy sector. (2008)

CEObriefings (UNEP-FI)

A series of short reports on climate change finance by the Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) of the UNEP Finance Initiative. (2005-2008)

IDB National Sustainable Electrification & Renewable Energy Program (Nicaragua)

The objective of the Program is to support the Nicaraguan Government efforts to reduce poverty trough the expansion and improvement of electricity service. The Program will also promote the increasing use of renewable sources for electricity generation in order to produce a change in the energy matrix and contribute with climate change mitigation. The program will have the following components:

  • Rural electrification through grid expansion
  • Electricity service legalization in subnormal neighbourhoods
  • Rural electrification in non interconnected areas with renewable energy
  • Pre-investment studies for renewable energy generation projects
  • Energy efficiency programs
  • Strengthening of the transmission system in rural areas

UNDP/GEF Energy-Efficient Heating Systems in Buildings (Armenia)

The objective of the project is to reduce GHG emissions from the heating sector in Armenia and to ensure that development of the heat and hot water supply sector in Armenia takes a more energy efficient and sustainable direction. The project addresses the existing institutional and capacity barriers to energy efficiency and complements other ongoing initiatives in Armenia through close cooperation with the World Bank managed Urban Heating Project, the Government of Netherlands, and USAID funded activities in the field of energy and environment.

One of the key approaches to changing the current heat and hot water supply practices and to leveraging increasing financing for this purpose is to strengthen the role of the local condominiums in organizing and procuring the heat and hot water supply services collectively at the building level. In terms of the fuels and technologies, the objective of the project is to reduce the use of electricity and unsustainably produced wood fuel for heating and hot water preparation and to encourage the more efficient use of natural gas in “heat only” applications (via decentralized or centralized approach) and/or waste heat from co-generation, thereby contributing to both reducing GHG emissions and ensuring future energy security.

DEG/KfW Olkaria III Geothermal Power Station (Kenya)

Olkaria III is a geothermal power station in Kenya. DEG arranged the complete debt financing required for the extension of the power station to the amount of 105 million US-dollars, which several financing institutions contributed funds to. Together with KfW Entwicklungbank, DEG provided the owner and operator, Orpower 4 Inc., with a long-term loan of 40 million US-dollars. Thanks to the financing arranged by DEG, the capacity of Olkaria III could be increased from 13 to 48 megawatts so that three and a half times the amount of electricity can be generated.

IDBI Chiller Energy Efficiency Project (India)

The India Chiller Energy Efficiency Project (CEEP) seeks to improve energy efficiency of building chillers (a major source of power demand) and accelerate phasing out of ozone depleting substances by providing an incentive to overcome upfront capital cost barrier of replacement and upgrade of older CFC-based chillers by more efficient non-CFC-using ones. Despite potential 40% improvement in energy consumption indeed, most building owners/managers have not embraced early or even timely replacement of outdated chillers given higher upfront capital requirement, perceived technology risks and high opportunity costs.

The objective is to replace a total of 370 chillers (out of a total market size of about 1,200 chillers), over a period of 3 years, with an average incentive of 20%, leading to an estimated (direct and indirect) 13 MtCO2e reduction in GHG emissions over 20 years. It draws on an innovative combination of GEF and MLP resources (up-front subsidy for early adopters of new chiller technology) and carbon revenues (contributing to a revolving fund to support replacement of additional chillers). This project illustrates how a limited upfront provision (less than 10%) of highly concessional resources (mostly from GEF) can potentially mobilize a much larger amount of resources (total cost of replacement estimated at about US$80 million) with greater transformation impact (more than 25% of chillers are targeted), building on synergies and maximizing effectiveness of resources use and increasing their leverage. A similar project is being prepared in the Philippines while Indonesia has expressed also its interest.

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