This paper provides an overview of the concept of direct access to funding for climate change actions in developing countries. It focuses on the institutional arrangements that are necessary to facilitate and support direct access and is intended to inform the current and future discussions on direct access modalities, including within the design process for the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The paper begins by looking at what the term ‘direct access’ implies, what it is seeking to achieve, and how it has been defined to-date.
The Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has been developing the Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curve for Non-Annex I countries since 1999. The curve results from compiled data of bottom-up country based studies at regional sectoral level and presents greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement opportunities by 2020. MAC curves describe the expected marginal cost and GHG abatement potential of several mitigation options.
Climate Desk™ is a simulation platform and expert service to support strategic, investment, and policy decisions on climate change. It builds on McKinsey's proprietary greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement cost curve model to deliver insights on the impact and costs of emissions reduction measures across sectors, regions, and technologies. The tool is fee-based but does have discounted subscriptions for governments.
This paper (PDF) presents an overview of existing practices by summarizing the findings from an extensive survey of various institutions, drawing on the lessons learned from development finance, the public and private activities of international financial institutions and experience with market-based instruments. The paper mainly focuses on mitigation, and it seeks to discern lessons for policymakers by addressing two key questions: What makes climate finance effective? and what tools, methods or systems might improve the effectiveness of climate finance?
This web-based programme allows technical and non-technical users alike to visualise the effects of climate change. Users can view historic temperature and rainfall maps overlaid with predictions of temperature and rainfall based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Users can review three greenhouse gas emission scenarios laid out by the IPCC with additional data layers from which more detailed forecasts can be drawn. ClimateWizard was developed by the Nature Conservancy and the Universities of Washington and Southern Mississippi.
In this paper, the Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) assesses the current status of the climate finance landscape, mapping its magnitude and nature along the life cycle of finance flows, i.e. the sources of finance, intermediaries involved in distribution, financial instruments, and final uses. After presenting estimates of current flows based on available data, describing the methodology, and discussing the sources of data, we offer recommendations to improve further data-gathering efforts.
The report has two objectives: (1) to contribute to policymakers’ understanding of the factors that institutional investors consider when investing in areas such as renewable energy and energy efficiency, and (2) to set out what institutional investors see as ‘investment-grade’ climate change and clean energy policy that would support significant low carbon, clean energy investment.