Renewable Energy

Direct Access to Climate Finance: Experiences and lessons learned (UNDP/ODI)

This paper provides an overview of the concept of direct access to funding for climate change actions in developing countries. It focuses on the institutional arrangements that are necessary to facilitate and support direct access and is intended to inform the current and future discussions on direct access modalities, including within the design process for the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The paper begins by looking at what the term ‘direct access’ implies, what it is seeking to achieve, and how it has been defined to-date.

SWERA Renewable Energy Resource EXplorer (RREX)

The SWERA Renewable energy Resource EXplorer (RREX) is an online Geographic Information System (GIS) tool for viewing renewable resource data. It encompasses a range of solar and wind datasets and maps. It relies on satellite and terrestrial measurements, numerical models, and empirical and analytical mapping methods. Results are integrated into a computer-based geo-referenced information system containing relevant infrastructure data, such as roads and transmission lines, and can be easily imported into common GIS software packages.

Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies (PRECIS)

PRECIS is a regional climate modelling system developed by the Hadley Centre at the UK Met Office. It was designed with the intention of being a free resource for scientists in developing countries. PRECIS has been used to assist the development of climate change scenarios in regions around the world, whilst utilising existing climate expertise and improving domestic capacity.

Marginal Abatement Cost Curve, Non-Annex I (ECN)

The Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has been developing the Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curve for Non-Annex I countries since 1999. The curve results from compiled data of bottom-up country based studies at regional sectoral level and presents greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement opportunities by 2020. MAC curves describe the expected marginal cost and GHG abatement potential of several mitigation options.

LEAP: Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (SEI)

LEAP, the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning System, is a widely-used software tool for energy policy analysis and climate change mitigation assessment developed at the Stockholm Environment Institute. Its users include government agencies, academics, non-governmental organizations, consulting companies, and energy utilities. It has been used at many different scales ranging from cities and states to national, regional and global applications.

HEDON (Household Energy Network)

HEDON Household Energy Network is the leading knowledge sharing and networking NGO for household energy solutions in developing countries. HEDON focuses on sustainable energy at household and community level, to improve the lives of people living in poverty while protecting the natural environment and combating climate change. HEDON informs and enables the work of its members through information sharing, learning, networking, and facilitation of partnerships. It also contains various embedded tools, a technology wiki, and discussion forums.

Geospatial Toolkit (NREL)

The Geospatial Toolkit (GsT) is an NREL-developed map-based software application that integrates resource data and other geographic information systems (GIS) data for integrated resource assessment. The non-resource, country-specific data for each GsT comes from a variety of agencies within each country as well as from global datasets. Users will find the GsT helpful in identifying the most economically viable areas for deployment of renewable energy technologies.  

ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies

ESMAP’s Low Carbon Growth Studies Pilot Project (2007–09), the governments of six middle-income-countries—Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and South Africa—assessed their development goals and priorities for GHG mitigation. The studies considered the additional costs and benefits of lower carbon growth and how to finance such measures. There is no single approach to the Low Carbon Growth Country Studies. Each study is determined by the country—government and local stakeholders—and tailored to the country’s economic circumstances.

Improving the Effectiveness of Climate Finance: Key lessons (EDF)

This paper (PDF) presents an overview of existing practices by summarizing the findings from an extensive survey of various institutions, drawing on the lessons learned from development finance, the public and private activities of international financial institutions and experience with market-based instruments. The paper mainly focuses on mitigation, and it seeks to discern lessons for policymakers by addressing two key questions: What makes climate finance effective? and what tools, methods or systems might improve the effectiveness of climate finance?  


This web-based programme allows technical and non-technical users alike to visualise the effects of climate change. Users can view historic temperature and rainfall maps overlaid with predictions of temperature and rainfall based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Users can review three greenhouse gas emission scenarios laid out by the IPCC with additional data layers from which more detailed forecasts can be drawn. ClimateWizard was developed by the Nature Conservancy and the Universities of Washington and Southern Mississippi.

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