Direct Access to Climate Finance: Experiences and lessons learned (UNDP/ODI)

This paper provides an overview of the concept of direct access to funding for climate change actions in developing countries. It focuses on the institutional arrangements that are necessary to facilitate and support direct access and is intended to inform the current and future discussions on direct access modalities, including within the design process for the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The paper begins by looking at what the term ‘direct access’ implies, what it is seeking to achieve, and how it has been defined to-date.

Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies (PRECIS)

PRECIS is a regional climate modelling system developed by the Hadley Centre at the UK Met Office. It was designed with the intention of being a free resource for scientists in developing countries. PRECIS has been used to assist the development of climate change scenarios in regions around the world, whilst utilising existing climate expertise and improving domestic capacity.

CRiSTAL: Community-based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation and Livelihoods

The Community-based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation and Livelihoods (CRiSTAL) is designed to help project planners and managers integrate climate change adaptation and risk reduction into community-level projects. It helps project designers and managers to understand the links between livelihoods and climate in their project areas; assess a project’s impact on community-level adaptive capacity; and make project adjustments to improve its impact on adaptive capacity and reduce the vulnerability of communities to climate change.

Improving the Effectiveness of Climate Finance: Key lessons (EDF)

This paper (PDF) presents an overview of existing practices by summarizing the findings from an extensive survey of various institutions, drawing on the lessons learned from development finance, the public and private activities of international financial institutions and experience with market-based instruments. The paper mainly focuses on mitigation, and it seeks to discern lessons for policymakers by addressing two key questions: What makes climate finance effective? and what tools, methods or systems might improve the effectiveness of climate finance?  

Will Private Finance Support Climate Change Adaptation in Developing Countries? Historical investment patterns as a window on future private climate finance (SEI)

This working paper explores what historical patterns of investment reveal about the potential for the private sector to play a significant role in raising and delivering climate finance, specifically in the context of the adaptation needs of developing countries. The author finds that private-sector finance is unevenly distributed among countries and among sectors, and it often does not match developing countries' most pressing needs. Also important is to differentiate between different financial flows - foreign direct investment equity vs. portfolio equity, for example, and equity vs.


This web-based programme allows technical and non-technical users alike to visualise the effects of climate change. Users can view historic temperature and rainfall maps overlaid with predictions of temperature and rainfall based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Users can review three greenhouse gas emission scenarios laid out by the IPCC with additional data layers from which more detailed forecasts can be drawn. ClimateWizard was developed by the Nature Conservancy and the Universities of Washington and Southern Mississippi.

Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) CARE Handbook

CARE has developed the Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) process to help communities to better understand the implications of climate change for the lives and livelihoods of the people impacted by climate change. By combining local knowledge with scientific climate information, the process builds people's understanding about climate risks and adaptation strategies. It provides a framework for dialogue within communities, as well as between communities and other stakeholders. The handbook is available in English, Spanish, French and Portuguese.

Climate Proofing for Development

German development agency GIZ created the Climate Proofing for Development tool based on a methodology used in Government-financed development projects. The tool is applicable to many levels - national, sectoral, project, and local - and enables analysis of policy, projects, and programmes in relation to the risks of climate change, which can assist users in identifying appropriate adaptation measures. Climate Proofing for Development determines the bio-physical and socioeconomic impacts of climate change in order to plan appropriate adaptation strategies.

The Landscape of Climate Finance

In this paper, the Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) assesses the current status of the climate finance landscape, mapping its magnitude and nature along the life cycle of finance flows, i.e. the sources of finance, intermediaries involved in distribution, financial instruments, and final uses. After presenting estimates of current flows based on available data, describing the methodology, and discussing the sources of data, we offer recommendations to improve further data-gathering efforts.  

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