Building upon the UNFCCC's global, top down analysis of the costs of climate change, UNDP commissioned a User Guidebook to support developing countries to undertake a bottom-up, national sectoral analyses of the costs of adapting to the impacts of climate change and mitigating GHG emissions. The User Guidebook, which was developed by UNDP with a group of international experts and regional centres of excellence, comprises:
The report reviews more than 200 public and private sector funds and mechanisms for financing projects, businesses, and infrastructure in the Asia region that mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases and thereby address climate change. The study aims to help Asian policymakers, public and private fund managers, banks, and even local communities identify ways to fund low-carbon development.
From 2010 to 2012, fast start finance began to flow from developed country exhequers. However, the climate finance paradigm is now shifting. A transition from loans and grants provided from scarce exchequer resources to innovative instruments for leveraging private capital and mitigating investment risk is required in the coming period.
This publication discusses the unique role that NDBs could play in scaling up private financing for climate change mitigation projects through the intermediation of international and national public climate finance in their respective local credit markets and the conditions that would be needed for them to be most effective. It draws from experiences in international climate finance and best practices, processes, and products of NDBs within the Latin American and Caribbean region.
This paper provides lessons learnt from the recent UNDP experience in implementation of Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Reviews (CPEIRs). It also provides proposal for implementing future CPEIRs and undertaking complementary analyses.
This paper describes a new methodology that aims to inform the development of the national response to climate change: the climate public expenditure and institutional review (CPEIR). The paper outlines the analytical framework of this methodology. It draws on the experience of a substantial body of work that has examined the effectiveness of public expenditure through the use of several analytical tools.
Targeting public finance to leverage private sector capital can help meet the several hundred billion dollars of annual low-carbon investment required in developing countries. This working paper serves as a primer, demonstrating how the public sector can employ different types of public financing instruments — whether loans, equity, or de-risking instruments — alongside policy and technical support to scale-up private sector investment in low-carbon markets.
To illustrate some of the key tracking issues, this paper presents examples of different types of funding for mitigation or adaptation activities in developing countries. The examples demonstrate the complexity of financial flows for climate change action, across international and domestic as well as public and private flows. The examples also reflect questions and issues that negotiators may need to address when deciding which flows could be counted towards the $100 bn, e.g.
The Global Protocol for Community-Scale GHG Emissions (GPC) resolves the differences between existing protocols. It is a joint mission between all interested stakeholders to develop an open, global protocol for community-scale accounting and reporting. Tis Protocol provides requirements and guidance for cities on preparing and publicly reporting a GHG emission inventory. The primary goal is to provide a standardized step-by-step approach to help cities quantify their GHG emissions in order to manage and reduce their GHG impacts.
The reason for establishing a business model framework is to ensure the Green Climate Fund (GCF) is "fit for purpose" -- in other words, that it is able to achieve the goals and objectives set down in the Government Instrument. At the second meeting of the GCF in October 2012, the GCF Board began to work on developing a business model framework for the GCF. At the same meeting, India announced they would prepare a vision paper on this topic, to be introduced at the third GCF meeting in Berlin, March 2013.