This paper describes a new methodology that aims to inform the development of the national response to climate change: the climate public expenditure and institutional review (CPEIR). The paper outlines the analytical framework of this methodology. It draws on the experience of a substantial body of work that has examined the effectiveness of public expenditure through the use of several analytical tools.
China has embarked on one of the largest endeavours in climate economics ever, to establish a national carbon emission trading system by 2015. As a first step, carbon-trading pilots have been initiated in seven provinces and cities. The success or failure of those experiments will to a large extent determine the future of climate policies in China.
From 2010 to 2012, fast start finance began to flow from developed country exchequers. However, the climate finance paradigm is now shifting. A transition from loans and grants provided from scarce exchequer resources to innovative instruments for leveraging private capital and mitigating investment risk is required in the coming period. But what are the implications for developed countries?
Targeting public finance to leverage private sector capital can help meet the several hundred billion dollars of annual low-carbon investment required in developing countries. This working paper serves as a primer, demonstrating how the public sector can employ different types of public financing instruments — whether loans, equity, or de-risking instruments — alongside policy and technical support to scale-up private sector investment in low-carbon markets.
To illustrate some of the key tracking issues, this paper presents examples of different types of funding for mitigation or adaptation activities in developing countries. The examples demonstrate the complexity of financial flows for climate change action, across international and domestic as well as public and private flows. The examples also reflect questions and issues that negotiators may need to address when deciding which flows could be counted towards the $100 bn, e.g.
The Global Protocol for Community-Scale GHG Emissions (GPC) resolves the differences between existing protocols. It is a joint mission between all interested stakeholders to develop an open, global protocol for community-scale accounting and reporting. Tis Protocol provides requirements and guidance for cities on preparing and publicly reporting a GHG emission inventory. The primary goal is to provide a standardized step-by-step approach to help cities quantify their GHG emissions in order to manage and reduce their GHG impacts.
The technical document #5, “Accessing Climate Finance for Sustainable Transport: A Practical Overview,” was developed by GIZ together with the Bridging the Gap Initiative. The paper represents a practical guide for developing country governments on how to access climate funds for sustainable land transport interventions. The guidance focuses on climate change mitigation and updates existing and proposed sources of climate finance in the context of the land transport sector.
Gapminder is a non-profit venture – a modern “museum” on the Internet – promoting sustainable global development and achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The initial activity was to pursue the development of the Trendalyzer software. Trendalyzer sought to unveil the beauty of statistical time series by converting boring numbers into enjoyable, animated and interactive graphics.
Limiting global temperature rise to 2°C above pre-industrial levels will require billions of dollars in investments each year to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and shift to low-emissions development pathways. This report draws on the experiences of six developing countries to examine how public climate finance can help meet the significant investment needs of developing countries by creating attractive conditions for scaled-up investment in low-carbon energy.
The report entitled Economics of forest and forest carbon projects: Translating lessons learned into national REDD+ implementation draws lessons on finance options and barriers related to project activities from the forest sector. It investigates the economics of implementing forest and REDD+ projects through a number of case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, by analyzing real forest and REDD+ investments. The report was funded by the UN-REDD Programme.