In this paper BNEF presents an alternative negotiating process based on the concept of “emissions intensity” in which emission targets are related to economic activity, rather than the current paradigm of absolute emission reductions for developed countries and little obligation on developing countries. Expressed in this way, targets can be agreed for all countries, not just developed countries. They would also be more flexible and give governments more control over achieving the targets.
This publication discusses the unique role that NDBs could play in scaling up private financing for climate change mitigation projects through the intermediation of international and national public climate finance in their respective local credit markets and the conditions that would be needed for them to be most effective. It draws from experiences in international climate finance and best practices, processes, and products of NDBs within the Latin American and Caribbean region.
This case study is an annex to the report Mobilizing Climate Investment: The Role of International Climate Finance in Creating Readiness for Scaled-up Low-Carbon Energy and presents a more detailed description of the case study which is summarized in the report.
This paper provides lessons learnt from the recent UNDP experience in implementation of Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Reviews (CPEIRs). It also provides proposal for implementing future CPEIRs and undertaking complementary analyses.
This paper describes a new methodology that aims to inform the development of the national response to climate change: the climate public expenditure and institutional review (CPEIR). The paper outlines the analytical framework of this methodology. It draws on the experience of a substantial body of work that has examined the effectiveness of public expenditure through the use of several analytical tools.
China has embarked on one of the largest endeavours in climate economics ever, to establish a national carbon emission trading system by 2015. As a first step, carbon-trading pilots have been initiated in seven provinces and cities. The success or failure of those experiments will to a large extent determine the future of climate policies in China.
From 2010 to 2012, fast start finance began to flow from developed country exchequers. However, the climate finance paradigm is now shifting. A transition from loans and grants provided from scarce exchequer resources to innovative instruments for leveraging private capital and mitigating investment risk is required in the coming period. But what are the implications for developed countries?
Targeting public finance to leverage private sector capital can help meet the several hundred billion dollars of annual low-carbon investment required in developing countries. This working paper serves as a primer, demonstrating how the public sector can employ different types of public financing instruments — whether loans, equity, or de-risking instruments — alongside policy and technical support to scale-up private sector investment in low-carbon markets.
To illustrate some of the key tracking issues, this paper presents examples of different types of funding for mitigation or adaptation activities in developing countries. The examples demonstrate the complexity of financial flows for climate change action, across international and domestic as well as public and private flows. The examples also reflect questions and issues that negotiators may need to address when deciding which flows could be counted towards the $100 bn, e.g.
The Global Protocol for Community-Scale GHG Emissions (GPC) resolves the differences between existing protocols. It is a joint mission between all interested stakeholders to develop an open, global protocol for community-scale accounting and reporting. Tis Protocol provides requirements and guidance for cities on preparing and publicly reporting a GHG emission inventory. The primary goal is to provide a standardized step-by-step approach to help cities quantify their GHG emissions in order to manage and reduce their GHG impacts.